Non-temporal information can be carried by time patterns in neuronal spiking and neural assemblies can be identified by collective (synchronous) firing rather than only by transient change in the firing rate. According to models and experiments, this arrangement would allow fast dynamics, robustness, flexibility, and coexistence of several assemblies in the same cortical region. Synchronization, spiking accuracy, modulation of spiking rate, and spatiotemporal coherent patterning may therefore represent distinct but interacting computational codes for functionally diverse neurons. The issue is crucial in neuroscience, especially when neuronal functions are related to high-order brain processes or signals recorded in man. A close scrutiny of the available conventional and non-conventional models and their extension to high-order neuronal operations, including “cognitive” processes, is now in order.